Python is an easy to use and easy to learn high level programming language.
There are two incompatible versions of python in nowadays use, python-2.7.x and python-3.x. This means you can't use a python2 interpreter to execute python3 code and in general it's also not possible to execute python2 code with a python3 interpreter.
But you can easily write code which is executable with both interpreters using __future__ definitions.
Check out the "Heidelberg Python Meetup Group"!
- good python tutorial: http://learnpythonthehardway.org/book/
- introduction to the mighty mathematics library numpy: https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy-dev/user/quickstart.html
- easy plotting library which makes it very easy to visualize data of every kind: http://matplotlib.org/