In contrast to the through-the-hole-technology, the surface mount technology ("Surface-mounted device"/ SMD) is easier to automate, has several mechanical advantages, and it better supports the ongoing miniaturization of electronic parts. Therefore it is nowadays the standard in the electronics industry.
Soldering SMD components
The principle is that you first apply soldering paste to all areas of the PCB. Then you place all parts (manually or by machine) on top. Finally you apply heat to the entire PCB and solder all parts at once. In the internet you find a lot of literature about this topic. The following external links are helpful for a first orientation.
Normally the SMD process requires soldering paste, stencils, pick and place machines and a reflow oven (Overview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYrucIWig24). However, maker friendly alternatives are available.
- An overview about these techniques is available here (German): https://www.mikrocontroller.net/articles/SMD_Löten
- This video shows the process for the stencil method, while it is using heat guns in order to apply heat: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyDRHI4YeMI
- This video shows a process that employs a conventional soldering iron only: https://www.elektormagazine.de/news/smds-von-hand-loten-nur-mit-mikroskop
- This channel provides several soldering tipps for the manual process (German): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4GrQNH80oDY
You could organize your SMD component stripes in 3D printed magazines.